Character traits, skills and knowledge which are used in the performance
It is always present and will not vary widely over short periods of time.
The amount of manual or mental energy that a person is prepared to expend on a job to reach a certain level of performance.
Can vary according to incentive and motivation.
Many people who are not motivated keep their performance to an acceptable level
by expending only 20-30% of their ability
Managers who know how to motivate their employees
can achieve 80-90% ability levels
and consequently higher levels of performance.
There are other more detailed notes on motivation elsewhere in this site, but remember Maslow?
Equity & Expectation
Again, detailed notes elsewhere. Basically, people expect to be treated equally, within the company and as others are in similar companies; they expect to get a certain reward for a certain effort; and they expect to get promoted if they undergo training. All these factors are inter-related and affect the amount of effort people are prepared to put in.
Task, or role, perception
The direction in which the person wishes to channel his or her effort and ability.
It varies according to such factors as
Standards & job descriptions must be known and understood
Those factors over which an individual has no control, eg:
the job may have been completed under severe time constraints, with a lack of adequate resources, or by using obsolete equipment;
there may have been conflicting priorities or information overload, such that the individual was confused and under stress;
other staff and departments may have been less than cooperative;
the restrictive policies of the organisation may have prevented the individual from using her initiative and imagination to the extent that she wished;
the quality of the supervision exercised may have been defective - some people need encouragement and support, whereas others like to be left to get on with the job.
Cannot be used as excuses for poor performance, but they do have a modifying effect.
The Performance - Appraisal Cycle
Go to Reasons for Measuring Performance
Return to 30 Outlines